What is “cracking” and “packing”?

“Cracking" is the splitting of a geographically compact minority population among two or more districts, thereby reducing the group’s ability to elect a representative in any district.

“Packing” is the dilution of minority group voting strength by improperly placing more minority voters into a district than is necessary to elect a representative of their choice.

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1. What is redistricting?
2. What does “substantially” equal mean?
3. What is a community of interest?
4. What is the Voting Rights Act?
5. What is “cracking” and “packing”?